* As noted in this column, there is evidence of gold mining inside Indigenous
lands and protected areas - which is forbidden by Brazilian Law. Data by MapBiomas.
** Data on gold production and gold exports by state do not correlate perfectly. This is because some states export gold without producing any, therefore there is no guarantee about the origin of that gold. For example, the state of Sao Paulo was the second-largest gold exporter in 2020, even though it did not produce a single gram of gold that year.